By Wolf D. Prix
At first the program for the center called for a hotel with a conference center to be used as the summer Davos World Economic Forum, but the hotel dropped out of the brief to be replaced with a 1,600-seat opera house—with all facilities under one big tent. The program of a shell covering several cultural venues is a building type common to, and popular in, China. In Dalian, the chosen site sat at the intersection of two new boulevards in an emerging Central Business District (CBD), now galloping tower by tower across land reclaimed from the sea. As in many of China’s cities, the new CBD in Dalian would focus on this new cultural centerpiece—conceived and celebrated as a stand-alone architectural event. Throughout China, landmark buildings are news items plastered on posters advertising their host cities.
Coop Himmelb(l)au, however, is not in the postcard business. Prix started tenting the program, which also included a theater and exhibition center, within a roughly triangular shell rising like an off-centered cone that accommodates the planned high-rise hotel. Unlike other architects whose originary shapes start with Euclidean geometry, Prix was fitting the shell to a program whose elements stretched and deformed what was already a hybrid triangular-conical shape. “I took care not to create a one-liner corporate building,” Prix says. When the hotel dropped out in favor of the opera house, “We suppressed the peak, and the new height limit provoked pushing out the conference spaces beyond the shell, creating a sculptural shape and a new geometry.”
Unlike some architects who work from the façade in, and others who work from the plan out, Prix designs in a reiterative process that alternately tenses and relaxes the shell, creating surfaces curving in two directions. Precedent reaches back decades to his Open House in Malibu, a project where, he says, “You have the feeling the inside pushes on the skin,” and to Oscar Niemeyer’s own house outside Rio de Janeiro, “where the roof doesn’t follow the ground plan, and the skin doesn’t follow the structure.” In Dalian, the building’s aluminum skins define the volume, but it behaves independently of structure. The structure—a hybrid of space frames, columns, and beams joined in complex knots—plays a recessive role without structuring the experience. Structure is neither dominant nor determinant.
Striving for a building that would generate more energy than it consumes, the rooftop is lined with photovoltaic panels, and the building is cooled with seawater, with the heat exchanges taking place in the basement. To add further energy savings, the architect operated on the shell. Prix combines a metal skin on the outside with a glass skin on the inside to create a hybrid membrane that responds to different functions. Using a parametric program, the architects created window openings that, like a brise-soleil, control sun exposure while admitting natural light. A system of louvers is angled to receive and channel prevailing winds. “We guide streams of air through the building by openings in the façade. A new aesthetic emerged from energy considerations,” Prix says. The architects set the dimensional parameters of the paneled aluminum cladding, and the program triangulates the skin into an elegant quilt of differently sized facets. One densely punctured roof façade, called “the chandelier,” emits a golden environmental glow inside as it channels sunlight.
With conferences and performances for up to 6,000 people at a time, the building has to accommodate the population of a small town, and Prix approached the design for the spaces between the conference rooms and performance spaces urbanistically, conceiving the gaps as streets, avenues, and plazas, complete with bridges, ramps, stairways, and dead-ends—as in a real town. A low, wide entrance compresses space as visitors enter into the main spatial event, a voluminous plaza that reveals a delirious interior landscape of Piranesian complexity, with forms that warp and spaces that bend out of sight. Space and form are inextricably interlocked in what Prix’s compatriot architect R.M. Schindler in pre-World War II Los Angeles used to call space/form—though Prix’s space/forms behave with a liquidity made possible by computational intelligence. “Liquid, fluid, dynamic, continuous spaces are the new space of our century,” Prix says.
Wolf D. Prix, born in Vienna in 1942, a co-founder, Design Principal and CEO of COOP HIMMELB(L)AU. He studied architecture at the Vienna University of Technology, the Architectural Association of London, and the Southern California Institute of Architecture in Los Angeles.
Source: http://www.architectmagazine.com – http://www.coop-himmelblau.at